|View of KAUST Beacon of Knowledge from campus library|
“Seek knowledge from the cradle to the grave” –Arabic wisdom
When my brother-in-law decided along with my sister to accept a faculty position to the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), he referred to the campus as an ‘oasis for science in the desert’.
They and many other scientists and engineers in numerous disciplines were drawn by the idea of reviving scientific research in the Arab world, home to about 17% of the world’s Muslims.
KAUST is a modern, liberal enclosed campus community situated at the heart of Islam’s birthplace, just an hour from Makkah and three hours from Madinah, the two holiest cities in Islam. The location at first glance appeared peculiar, particularly since very little research and development occurs in the Middle East. The region has long suffered from a brain drain of top talent moving to the west to complete higher degrees and conduct world-class research.
In addition to this shortcoming, the desert bordering the Red Sea seemed an inappropriate backdrop against which to situate a university that strives to turn out high-calibre research and graduate scientists and engineers who are able to compete on the world stage, particularly since Saudi Arabia is regarded as among the most-conservative states the world.
|Most of the KAUST campus is lined with date palms|
Yet the project, while bearing numerous growing pains since its launch in late 2009, appears to be working. Scientists have set up world-class laboratories and hired first-rate researchers and post-doctoral fellows of numerous nationalities. They are conducting research in-house and through collaborations which should, in the coming years, produce meaningful results and hopefully be published in some top scientific journals.
|'The learned are the heirs of the Prophets'|
Through numerous interactive multi-media displays, the museum introduces visitors to Muslim scholars who made pivotal contributions to physics, chemistry, engineering, astronomy, mathematics, medicine, pharmacology, life sciences, geology, architecture and material sciences. “It is evident from this museum that Muslim scholars laid the foundation for the Renaissance in Europe,” reads one sign in the museum.
Seeking to revive this vitality near the birthplace of Islam made a great deal more sense to me after touring this small but immensely engaging museum.
Research and discovery are complementary with these goals; Muslim scientists strive to uncover the secrets that only God knows, and in doing so bring good to humanity as a whole by discovering technologies and medicines that would benefit their communities.
“The learned are the heirs of the Prophets,” reads one Hadith, saying of the Last Prophet ﷺ, in words etched on the wall of the museum. “Those truly fear Allah (God), among His Servants, who have knowledge,” says another sign, quoting from the Holy Quran, itself full of numerous scientific truths.
|The quest for knowledge is an essential part of faith|
Ibn al-Haitham (965-1039), for instance, pioneered the scientific method and his ‘Book of Optics’ (1011-1021) ranks alongside Isaac Newton’s Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica as one of the most influential books in physics. He made crucial discoveries in mathematics, astronomy and optics.
It was Muslim mathematicians who introduced the concept of zero, the decimal point and Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) to mathematics. The numerals used widely by Arabic speakers today (٠.١.٢.٣.٤.٥.٦.٧.٨.٩) are actually Hindi numerals.
Muslim engineering genius Al-Jazari (1136-1206) invented five water-raising machines, and was the first engineer to introduce crankshafts, cog wheels, pistons and one-way clack valves into pumps. He also designed and made both the four-bolt lock and the combination lock. An impressive replica of Jazari’s Elephant Clock using water technology, along with an interactive description of how it works, is found in the museum.
|Interactive display of the ways Islam promoted research and discovery|
A touch-screen ‘human health’ wall displays the contributions of Muslim scientists to the study of human anatomy, physiology and epidemiology. The museum also features an interactive game that allows you to chart the travels of Ibn Battuta, one of history’s greatest explorers. Along with Muslim explorer Zheng He, Ibn Battuta’s travels were as extensive as those of more famous European explorers such as Marco Polo and Christopher Columbus.
|Replica of Al-Jazari's genius water-powered Elephant Clock|
Other brilliant Muslim scientists featured in the museum include:
Ibn Sina (980-1037), who wrote over 200 books on medicine, mineralogy, astronomy and mathematics, and identified over 700 drugs.
Jabin bin Hayyan (721-815), who made important contributions to chemistry that were translated into Latin and used extensively in Europe.
Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406), regarded as the forerunner of modern sociology and economics.
Umar al-Khayyam (1048-1131), who discovered methods for solving cubic equations “that would be intelligible to only the most advanced mathematicians 1,000 years later”.
Al-Zahrawi (936-1013), who’s 30-volume ‘Method of Medicine’ summarised all known information on medicine and medical treatments. The book was translated into Latin and used for teaching medicine in Europe for several centuries.
|Water technology displayed at KAUST museum|
KAUST’s main research buildings are named after many of these pre-eminent Islamic scholars.
Developing knowledge-driven economies in the Middle East that promote and encourage innovation and modernisation is crucial for the region’s economic future. While there is a long road ahead to make this a reality, reinvigorating the scientific spirit that is intrinsic in Islam is one way KAUST could help make this a reality.
“Knowledge exists potentially in the human soul like the seed in the soil; through learning, that potential turns into reality”-Muslim Philosopher Al-Ghazali
|Among the university's missions is to reinvigorate the role of innovation|
|Fantastic interactive screen chronicles great Islamic inventions|
|Me next to the Al-Jazari's Elephant Clock replica|
|List of some of history's greatest explorers|
|Wealth of language transfer from Arabic to English|
|Front view of the Elephant Clock|
|One of Islam's great scientists|
|Arabic numerals, zero and decimal place introduced to mathematics by Muslim scholars|
|Interactive game charts travels of Ibn Battuta|
|In front of one of the key research buildings at KAUST|
|Many students and faculty ride bicycles on campus despite the heat|
|Gorgeous interior of the KAUST library. All the computers are Macs!|
|King Abdullah depicted using computer motherboard pieces & oil paint, KAUST library, Renaud Delorme|
|KAUST's main mosque|
|Convinced harvesting dates partially funds the university. They're everywhere!|
|And I mean everywhere..|
|Partial view of the Red Sea in residential area of KAUST|